Tuesday, 28 July 2015

Shopping for men's clothes - web task

Here is a simple web browsing and vocab searching task. Students enjoy these and pick up new vocabulary in an enjoyable way. Good for the computer room or iPad. This is from the Y10-11 pages of frenchteacher.net.

La mode masculine

Trouvez le site du magasin de mode masculine Jules


En cherchant sur le site traduisez les termes suivants :

T-shirts et polos                                                      Blousons et parkas
printed - __________                                                padded - _________
sleeves - __________                                               hooded - ________
round collar - ___ ____                                             leather look - ______ ____
buttoned - ___________                                           raised collar - ___ ______
vest top  - ___________                                           denim - _____

Chemises                                                                 Vestes et costumes
checks - _________                                                 jacket - ______
slim fit - _____                                                           suit - _______
striped - _____                                                          reinforced - ________
tight-fitting - ________                                              waistcoat - ______
floral - ______                                                           stitched cotton - _____ _____

Pulls et sweats                                                        Accessoires et chaussures
zipped - ______                                                         neck scarf - _____
pocket - _____                                                          straw hat - ______ _- _____
linen - ___                                                                  silk tie - ______ _______
silk - ____                                                                  bow tie - ______
cotton - _____                                                           wallet - __________
                                                                                  flip-flops - ________
Pantalons et bermudas                                          boxers - ________
chino - _____                                                            braces - ________
suit trousers - _______ __ ______                            belt - __________
stretch fit - _________

skinny - ______                                                         

How the exam boards cocked a snook at ALCAB

Readers of my blog may recall that I got unusually hot under the collar when ALCAB (the Russell Group led advisory panel on MFL A-levels, set up by Michael Gove) came up with their recommendations for the new A-levels.

My two main gripes were the idea of a literature/film essay in English and the nature of the subject topics they were recommending.

The essay in English was rejected by Ofqual and ALCAB after consultation, so students will now have to write in the target language. That is good, since teachers will be encouraged to make maximum use of the target language in the classroom and overall language proficiency will be enhanced at no great expense to "cognitive challenge".

As far as the topics are concerned, let me remind you of the French list of themes ALCAB had proposed in their "indicative list". Then have a look at what the exam boards came up with. How similar do you think these lists will be?

ALCAB indicative list
  • Republican values.
  • Schooling.
  • Provinces and regions.
  • Paris/Montreal/Marseilles.
  • Dom-Toms.
  • Les grands projets.
  • Secularism.
  • Freedom of expression.
  • The French revolution.
  • The French empire and decolonisation.
  • The Algerian war of independence.
  • The occupation.
  • The Dreyfus affair.
  • Right and left in politics.
  • The revival of antisemitism.
  • Surrealism.
  • The New Wave.
  • Existentialism.
  • Popular music.
  • Contemporary television.
  • Impressionist painting.
  • Négritude/créolité.
  • French mathematics (yes!).
  • Science and technology in contemporary France.

AQA's draft list
  • The changing nature of family.
  • The "cyber-society".
  • The place of voluntary work.
  • Positive features of a diverse society.
  • Life for the marginalised.
  • How criminals are treated.
  • A culture proud of its heritage.
  • Contemporary francophone music.
  • Cinema: the 7th art form.
  • Teenagers, the right to vote and political commitment.
  • Demonstrations, strikes - who holds the power?
  • Politics and immigration.
Eduqas list
  • Advantages of travelling, working and studying abroad.
  • Impact of travel on society (economic, social, physical and environmental).
  • Local culture and festivals in France and French-speaking countries and communities.
  • Migration and integration.
  • Cultural identity and marginalisation.
  • Cultural enrichment and celebrating difference.
  • Discrimination and diversity.
  • Entertainment, music and the arts . 
  • Media and digital culture.  
  • Youth sub-cultures, trends and personal identity. 
  • From June 1940 – May 1945 (occupation, liberation and end of World War II) .
  • Life in Occupied France and the cultural dimension (théâtre, cinéma, littérature) .
  • 1945-1950: rebuilding and restructuring. 
  • Repercussions for modern day France .

OCR list
  • Stereotypes, equality and gender -  the family (different structures and relationships); attitudes to marriage; gender identity; equality of opportunity; the roles of men and women; the effects of communication technology on human relationships.
  • Modern world issues - eating habits, genetically modified (GM) foods, vegetarianism, organic food and food production in target language countries and communities; obsessions and addictions; impacts of lifestyle on health, sport and fitness; technology. 
  • Law and order - types of crime, demographics of crime and punishment; cybercrime; crime prevention measures; punishments (prison, fines, alternatives to prison). 
  • Medical advances and related ethical issues - medical research; animal testing; genetic engineering; cosmetic surgery; the effect of extending life expectancy on demographics. 
  • Aspects of artistic culture - the popularity and significance of TV, film, theatre and music in the countries and communities where the language is spoken; music as an element of personal and national identity; the impact of digital technology in the world of the arts. 
  • Aspects of political culture - political systems; the impact of politics on the individual and society (education, housing, the environment, employment and migration); the role of the EU.


Pearson list
  • Les changements dans les structures familiales Les changements dans les attitudes envers le mariage, les couples et la famille. 
  • L’éducation Le système éducatif et les questions estudiantines. 
  • Le monde du travail La vie active en France et les attitudes envers le travail; le droit à la grève; l’égalité des sexes. 
  • La musique Les changements et les développements; l’impact de la musique sur la culture populaire. 
  • Les médias La liberté d’expression; la presse écrite et en ligne; l’impact sur la société et la politique. 
  • Les festivals et les traditions Les festivals, fêtes, coutumes et traditions. 
  • L’intégration et le multiculturalisme Les origines de l’immigration (à partir du 20ème siècle); l’évolution des stratégies politiques; les bienfaits at les défis de l’intégration et du multiculturalisme. 
  • La montée de l’extrême droite Les objectifs du Front national (FN); les leaders du FN; la montée du FN; l’opinion publique. 
  • L’Occupation La vie sous le régime de Vichy et l’autorité du Maréchal Pétain; La France occupée et la collaboration; l’antisémitisme. 
  • La Résistance La Résistance des Français, l’importance de Jean Moulin et Charles de Gaulle. 
Now, you will note that the exam boards appear to have looked at the ALCAB list and said "No, these won't work, let's see what we can come up with".

They were absolutely right. Their objection to the ALCAB list, as was mine, would have been that the proposed topics, although interesting in themselves, were not appropriate for A-level classes, largely because they would not generate communicative lessons. Would students actually want to talk about these topics?In fact, when I first looked at the ALCAB list and saw "French mathematics" I was bound to question whether ALCAB should be taken seriously at all.

Anyway, hopefully we are past that and Ofqual will give the green light to the exam boards' proposals, no doubt with some tweaking. I believe that what the exam boards have come up with does satisfy the DfE requirements in terms of cognitive challenge and relationship with the target language culture. The vast majority of the topics will allow for interesting, challenging lessons providing opportunities for oral communication. I would imagine the same goes for German and Spanish.

The fundamental error in the first place, in my view, was when Michael Gove essentially handed over the job of reviewing A-level to university academics, well-intentioned of course, but with little experience of A-level teaching in schools and colleges. The exam boards have exercised their skill and experience and it is to be hoped Ofqual share their vision.

Sunday, 26 July 2015

Primary to secondary transition

A problematic area for language teachers is how to handle the transition between primary and secondary school. As a head of department I once did a survey of our feeder primaries (about 28 of them, mainly small, rural) to find out what the nature of their provision was. You won't be surprised to learn that it was very varied. The large majority of schools were offering a little French, with about half an hour a week at KS2; one or two did some Spanish. There was no common curriculum and the skill levels of the teachers were inevitably varied.

I concluded that that provision was so patchy that we had to assume, in general terms, a "clean slate" approach. We did refine this to some extent by asking every Y7 pupil to fill in a survey sheet for us very early on. They could show us what they had done, what words they knew and could spell, what languages they had done and so on. The principal purpose of the exercise was to make sure we knew which pupils had covered a significant amount of ground in French. We could then use this knowledge to tweak lesson planning, build a good relationship with those pupils and provide some extension tasks.

Now, secondary teachers are sometimes criticised for the "clean slate" approach - the one where you assume that all pupils are starting from scratch. I am currently reading the book Learning to Teach Foreign Languages in the Secondary School (Pachler, Evans, Redondo and Fisher, 2014), a good standard primer for PGCE students in England. They are critical of the clean slate approach, but when it comes down to it they do not provide a huge range of ideas as an alternative. Here is what they list from a book by Jones and McLachlan (2009) Primary Languages in Practice:

Year 6

  • Sampling a lesson from a Y7 textbook.
  • Enjoying a simple story, reciting and acting as the words are looked at to establish phone-grapheme correspondence.
  • Simple spelling and basic grammar challenges (linking these to literacy)
  • Learning to write a few sentences.
  • Writing notices in the TL for around the classroom and school.
  • Writing short emails to pen pals.
  • Reading aloud or memorisation competitions.
Year 7
  • Devising challenge activities based on the Y7 textbook that clearly identify primary coverage such as an interview scenario, a poem or a song.
  • Formative integrated assessments in the form of quizzes in the early weeks to build up a picture of what the pupils know/do not know, as part of the auditing procedure.
  • Topic work that enables pupils to use what they know, e.g. create a brochure on their town or about a French town.
  • Creating mini-plays in groups that require pupils to use previous as well as new learning.
  • Skills lessons, e.g. vocabulary builders and pattern/grammar mind maps.
Other useful bridging projects can be for Y6 pupils to do taster lessons at their future secondary school; Y7 students can also go into primaries to talk of their experience at language learning; Y6 and Y7 pupils could also work together on collaborative language learning related tasks.

From the standpoint of the Y7 teacher there is clearly a delicate balance to be struck. One or two of the above ideas look useful to me (I wouldn't bother with mini-plays and the integrated assessments - time is too short and to assess properly you need to know exactly what you are assessing) but, in reality, the skilled teacher is likely to want to build up language skill in a structured way and make sure all pupils are taken along at a reasonable pace. Previous knowledge is unlikely to be firmly embedded so cannot assumed to be secure. In any case, any revision of previously learnt material is worthwhile. It is quite possible (and with no offence intended towards primary teachers who are often aware of their own limitations) that material may have been taught imperfectly, so work on accurate pronunciation in the early stages is important.

The ideas for Y6 teachers look good. Indeed, the latest National Curriculum already includes the requirement to write sentences.

By all means provide those pupils with good knowledge to show off what they know, provide open-ended activities which allow the fastest learners to extend themselves. Above all, make sure the pupils with solid prior knowledge know that you know what they can do. But they too have to understand that a Y7 is mixed ability and that some compromise is needed.

Is there ever a case for setting by prior knowledge? I would strongly advise against this. There may be a stronger case for setting by aptitude for languages, but even this is problematic in Y7 and hard to justify for a number of reasons (social/affective, reliability of baselining, general issues of setting by ability).

The Pachler et al book I mentioned above notes that there is no convincing evidence from research that starting a language young in an instructional setting leads to better long term performance five years later. I agree with them that one of the best ways to look at primary languages is as an opportunity to give children more confidence with language learning and communication, to build enthusiasm, cultural and linguistic knowledge, intercultural awareness and literacy. Secondary teachers need to carefully audit what their new intake has done previously, should make some allowance for it, handle it with skill, provide some extension activity, but should still focus essentially on taking the whole class together on the language learning journey.


Saturday, 25 July 2015

The grammar-translation approach and beyond

Younger teachers and readers may be curious to see these two examples of O-level French exam papers from 1959 which have been on the Lawnswood School, Leeds website for some time. (Thank you to them for keeping them on public record, along with papers for other subjects.)

Enjoy!

http://www.lawnswoodhighschool.com/lhs/GCE1959French1O.html

http://www.lawnswoodhighschool.com/lhs/GCE1959French2O.html

Addendum:  See these papers kept in archive by Cambridge too. Thanks to Frances Wilson from OCR.

http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/our-research/archives-service/past-exam-material/french/

Grammar-translation was the predominant approach to language teaching for much of the twentieth century and was based on the way Latin had been taught for many years. There was no real syllabus to speak of. Teachers worked through text books (often written by W. F. H. Whitmarsh) and relied on past exam papers to give them a guide on what to prepare. Lessons consisted of vocabulary learning, grammar explanation and practice (often via translation), reading comprehension and dictation.

Here is something from my Y9 German exercise book. Yes, I know, you still give grammar notes or handouts and you are probably right to do so!



More forward-thinking teachers with the requisite oral skills (a minority) included question-answer practice and storytelling with the aid of pictures. Some might even do listening comprehension work using their own voice or, more rarely, a reel-to-reel tape recorder or vinyl record player.

By the time I did O-level in 1973 the exam papers had evolved somewhat, but still relied principally on translation both ways, comprehension and a picture composition. I also had an oral exam with a visiting examiner. We prepared long lists of questions which might come up on the day.

Grammar-translation fitted with the educational paradigm of the day. O-level was designed for the minority of the school population who went to grammar schools (roughly 25% of the school population). Pupils who went to the other schools, mainly "secondary moderns" sometimes did O-level, but were far more likely to do the easier CSE exam or not do a language at all.

When you look at those papers from 1959 you are struck by a few things. Firstly, they were hard. Secondly, they strongly featured a certain type of literary, narrative language. Thirdly, they stressed above all written range and accuracy. No importance was given to listening skills in the exam. I suspect there was an oral test in 1959 (does anyone know?).

Although O-level had evolved somewhat by its demise in 1986 you can imagine what a change the GCSE exam was. The new GCSE in 1987 gave equal weight to the four skills, tried to reward pupils of all abilities and attainment and was a good deal more motivating for the majority of pupils. At last the emphasis was to be on using the foreign language as a practical means of communication. Although we frequently criticise GCSE for its dull content it was a vast improvement on what preceded it.

Since 1987 GCSE has evolved in various ways, although not fundamentally. The recent decision to bring back an element of translation is, in my view, regrettable and unnecessary. Fortunately it attracts relatively few marks so it is to be hoped that teachers do not spend too much time doing translation at the expense of communicative work in the target language.

Was there anything better about those 1959 exam papers? Not much. They worked quite well for a small minority of motivated and able linguists who enjoyed manipulating language, including their own. But even those students, although possessing a large vocabulary and sound command of grammar rules and well primed for reading literature in the second language, were poorly prepared for speaking and listening to a language abroad.

I wonder what assessment will look like in 50 years from now. That could be a subject for another blog.


Thursday, 23 July 2015

Make your own booklets

Teachers and pupils like booklets. There is something satisfying about having a stapled set of resources to work through. Pupils develop a habit, get a sense of progress and a feeling of completion.

I know some teachers have made booklets from resources on frenchteacher.net. In case you haven't thought of it before, here are some stapled booklets you can produce.

Year 7/primary
  • A set of parallel reading texts (dolphins, vampires, ladybirds, my friend, my mum etc - 27 texts in all)
  • Crosswords, wordsearches and code-breaking games 
  • Verb practice sheets (être, avoir, faire, aller, jouer etc - 12 sheets).
  • Vocabulary by theme
Year 8
  • Crosswords and wordsearches (17)
  • Video listening sheets (6)
  • Vocabulary by theme
  • Perfect tense grammar sheets (10)
Year 9
  • Video listening sheets (8)
  • Grammar worksheets (perfect/imperfect/future) (about 35)
  • Texts with exercises (15)
Year 10-11 (intermediate/GCSE)
  • Grammar worksheets (about 30)
  • Video listening (20)
  • Texts with questions in English (18)
  • Texts with other exercises by theme (about 50)
  • Set of reading tasks for GCSE revision
  • Sets of simple signs for GCSE revision (5 sets of 50)
  • Set of reading gap fill tasks
  • GCSE vocabulary lists
A-level
  • A-level video listening sheets(33)
  • AS-level video listening sheets(34)
  • Vocabulary booklets
  • AS-level oral booklets (questions + vocabulary by theme)
  • Grammar cloze exercises (14)
  • Grammar worksheets (30)
  • Translations into English (11)
  • Translations into French (12)
  • Translation sentences (3 sets)
  • Themed texts with exercises for AS and A-level (lots and lots)
Adults
  • Video listening sheets(40)
  • Situational dialogues (12)
  • Texts with exercises (lots)

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

Five blogs I like

On frenchteacher.net I have a long list of French teacher blog links, but I don't have the time to visit them all, apart from checking that the links have not gone dead. The languages blogs I like to read most, though, are ones related to language teaching pedagogy. I have maintained an interest in this over the years ever since my linguistics study at university and the MA I did later (partly on the work of Stephen Krashen). But there are other education blogs I like to read too. Here are five blogs I would recommend:


  • The Language Gym blog by Gianfranco Conti is unusual in combining detailed reference to research with practical implications for the classroom. It's a relatively new blog, but Gianfranco, who teaches French in Kuala Lumpur, is a frenetic blogger who always makes you think without trying to sell one particular approach over another. Young teachers could learn a good deal from his posts which are detailed and referenced. Gianfranco really gets into the nitty-gritty of "what works". He also runs a free interactive website called The Language Gym with a focus on language manipulation.


  • Musicuentos ("inspiring passion and proficiency in world language teaching") is another website and blog from America with the focus firmly on second language teaching methodology. I have belatedly discovered this one and can recommend, in particular, the series of videocasts recently published and which focus on aspects of research and methodology. The curator is Sarah-Elizabeth Cottrell, a Spanish teacher with a strong background in second language acquisition theory and research and who seems to have an eclectic view of what might work. Sarah is active on Twitter and sometimes hosts #langchat question-answer chats.


  • Barry Smith's occasional blogs are good fun. Barry enjoys taking aim at what he sees as fashionable but ineffective practices in the modern languages classroom. He teaches French at the new Michaela Community School in London. Michaela has made a bit of a name for itself during its short existence. It is known as a school with outstandingly well-behaved children, a strong focus on traditional knowledge and a rejection of a lot of the bureaucracy and box-ticking activities which go on in so many British schools. Barry's approach to French teaching is quite original and his pupils (Barry would never call them students) seem to love it. He likes dictating and translating but hates pictures.


  • Tom Bennett writes a blog for the TES. Tom recently became the leader of an advisory group on behaviour for the DfE. Tom, whose background is English teaching, is well known in the twittersphere for his amusing tweets, huge, old-school common sense about classroom behaviour and very entertaining writing. He has also taken the lead in establishing the popular ResearchEd conferences which seem to be sprouting up all over the world. I always enjoy his posts about education.


  • My final one is more of a resource site than a blog. It's called Douce France and is run by an Irish teacher of French Conan Hamill. Conan regularly posts a French text he has written, along with a link to a radio broadcast of topical interest. He includes questions for his students to work on. Recent topics have included: same sex marriage (to accompany the recent referendum in Ireland), Jean-Marie Le Pen, the Eurovision song contest and the Charlie Hebdo events. I don't know how well known Douce France is, but it's great that Conan shares his work with the world.







Sunday, 19 July 2015

Reciting letters and numbers

I don't recall learning to say the alphabet in French at school. When I began teaching French in 1980 I didn't teach the alphabet either. By the time I finished teaching in 2012 I had come round to regularly teaching the alphabet to Y7s. But was it a good idea?

My approach eventually became to teach A-Z using an American marching song melody. It was a fun thing to do at the start of lessons, brought the class together, helped developed pronunciation and encouraged a focused, disciplined start. Classes liked it and it no doubt helped somewhat at later stages when pupils had to spell out words.

Saying the alphabet out loud, just like reciting numbers in order, seems like an obvious thing to do.

And yet... the reasons we didn't do it at school and I balked at doing it in my early career, were as follows:

1. Spelling out letters in alphabetical order is not a typical communicative task. How often do we do it in life apart from when teaching the alphabet to children?

2. If you teach letters and numbers in order it may slow down a child's ability to instantly recall them when this is required for a real-life tasks such as spelling a name out, saying a year or giving a phone number. We have all seen children having to go through the alphabet or numbers in order before finding the one they need. If we did not teach the alphabet in order would they identify letters more quickly?

I have mixed feelings about this. If you want learners to get good at using individual letters and numbers quickly (in other words, if you want real internalised competence with letter and number production) then the best practice is not to recite them in alphabetical or numerical order, but to play letter and number games which get pupils used to using them more randomly.

There are plenty of ways of doing this which I have blogged about before: aural anagrams, transcribing words, playing hangman, doing mental maths problems, playing "Countdown" and so on. "Fizz-buzz" is an interesting case for number play; although it takes numbers in order it does help develop mental arithmetic through the target language so is more useful than simple counting out.

Does all this mean reciting the alphabet and saying 1-20 has no value? I would say that these tasks still have a use in the early stages for the reasons I mentioned above. The main thing, though, is to move beyond them as soon as possible and to build in regular, spaced practice of randomised letter and number.



- Posted using BlogPress from my iPad

Wednesday, 15 July 2015

Comparing the new draft A-level specifications (2)

In this blog I am going to look at the assessment regimes of the four exam boards as they appear in the drafts. Usual caveat: this may change a bit! This summary applies to French, German and Spanish.

It is worth saying at the outset that there is far less variation in the pattern of assessment between boards as there is with subject content and prescribed lists of books and films. Nevertheless, if a teacher is weighing up two different boards, they may be slightly influenced by how the exams are arranged (content and timings). You'll see that, as the drafts stand, students will sit in the exam room a bit longer with OCR and Eduqas overall.

I shall look at both AS and A-level this time.

There is a little variation in nomenclature across the boards, but for ease of comparison I'll just use the terms Paper1, Paper 2 and Speaking. Note that you need to add 15 minutes prep time for the AS oral and 5 minutes for A-level.

Note also that even though weighting seem to vary somewhat from board to board, the overall Assessment Objectives (AOs) for each board are weighted identically, as dictated by Ofqual. Each board allocates marks slightly differently.

Again, apologies for the formatting. I shall really master using Blogger one day.


AQA

AS-level

Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation into English    1h 45     40%
Paper 2     Translation into TL, essay                              1h 15     30%
Speaking   Discussion of two themes                             12-14m  30%

A-level
Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation both ways       2h 30     40%
Paper 2     Two essays in TL                                            2h          30%
Speaking   Discussion + pres/discussion of research      16-18m  30%

Total exam time: AS = 3h    A-level = 4h 30     Total      7h30


Eduqas

AS-level
Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation both ways       2h 30     50%
Paper 2     Essay in TL                                                     1h 15     20%
Speaking  Arguing a point of + discussion                     12-15m  30%

A-level
Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation both ways       2h 30     50%
Paper 2     Two essays in TL                                            2h          20%
Speaking   Research project + discussion from card      16-18m  30%

Total exam time: AS = 3h 45   A-level = 4h 30  Total     8h 15


OCR

AS-level
Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation into English    1h 30     37%
Paper 2     Translation into TL + essay in TL                   1h 30    33%
Speaking   Discussion of two themes                              12-14m 30%

A-level      
Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation into English     2h 30    40%      
Paper 2     Translation into TL + two essays in TL          2h 45    30%
Speaking   Research project + discussion from card      16-18m  30%

Total exam time:  AS = 3h   A-level = 5h 15    Total       8h 15


Pearson

AS-level     
Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation into English   1h 50    40%
Paper 2    Translation into TL + essay  in TL                 1h 15    30%                  
Speaking  Discussion of two themes                             12-15m 30%

A-level
Paper 1     Listening, reading, translation into English   1h 50    40%
Paper 2     Translation into TL + two essays in TL         2h 40    30%
Speaking   Research project + discussion                      16-18m 30%    

Total exam time:   AS = 3h 05   A-level = 4h 30  Total    7h 35

Co-teaching new AS and A-levels

You'll be aware by now that the new AS-Level for first teaching in September 2016 is a so-called "stand-alone" or "decoupled" qualification so any marks gained from it will not count towards A-level. Like all other AS-levels, however, it has been designed to be co-teachable with A-level. It remains to be seen how many schools will embrace this idea. Certainly the exam boards anticipate a large fall in AS entries as school focus on the traditional three linear A-levels taught over two years.

For schools which do go down the co-teaching route, what are the implications?

Recall that for AS-level students have to be taught either a literary text or a film. For the full A-level students have to study either a book and a film or two books. In terms of themes/topics, the AS-level material is incorporated within the A-level themes.

Students in schools who do offer AS-levels in Y12 could do their language for a year, take the AS exam and get a grade. This may influence their decision to carry on into Y13.

If I had to co-teach I think I would do it this way:

I would teach a film in Y12. For some students the leap to studying a full novel or play in Y12 would be quite high. In Y13 I would then teach either a second film and a text, or two texts. On balance, with most groups, I would probably go for a film in the autumn term and a text in the spring term.

In Y12 I would cover the AS-level themes spelled out in the specification (see my previous blog) and add any other material I thought were worthwhile or topical. I would build in grammar revision the content of which would depend on the group. Some groups would need the basics going over again, others not so much.

Is there a case for using the film studied in Y12 for the A-level entry in Y13? You could do this, but the film (or text) would need to be re-visited in Y13 which would make for clumsy planning. I would do a separate film (or text in Y13). Don't forget that in Y113 students will need to do their personal research project too, but they (and teachers) should not make a huge meal out of this. The assessment of this project will take several minutes of the speaking exam - that's all.

In theory AS-level is meant to be as difficult as A-level (but with less of it). The draft specimen material just published shows that the essay questions on the texts and films are less challenging than at A-level. This makes sense and I hope Ofqual agree. If they toughened up the essay questions at AS-level this would sink a lot of candidates.

On the basis I have suggested, co-teaching, though not ideal, can be done effectively enough. Certain decisions need to be made. Do candidates intent on doing a two year A-level need to take the AS-level? They would end up with two qualifications. I imagine most would want to do that. As I suggested above, it would give them a clear idea of where they stand in terms of grade. It would also be valuable exam practice and may sharpen up their motivation half way through the course. The AS-level would be a higher stakes alternative to an internal end of Y12 exam.

Given the paucity of modern linguists at A-level schools and departments may be keen to offer AS-level to increase their numbers and to create economically viable classes. They will also naturally want to encourage as many students as possible to benefit from language learning. Budgets will be getting tighter in coming years. Some departments will even be asked to collapse groups from Y12 and Y13 - this is far from ideal.

Much of this will come down to whole school policies which will factor in, amongst other things, the cost of exam entries. I would certainly argue for keeping AS-level and for co-teaching.

Tuesday, 14 July 2015

Comparing the new draft A-level French specifications (1)

Ofqual and the exam boards are on a tight schedule (merci Monsieur Gove) . The new draft specs for A-level are now published for first teaching from September 2016. These have yet to be accredited by Ofqual and based on recent performance there may be tweaks to come.

So here is a comparison of the subject content for A-level French of the four awarding bodies AQA, Eduqas, OCR and Pearson. Remember that they were working within the straitjacket provided by the DfE and Ofqual. Nevertheless you will see some significant differences in the choice of subject matter and prescribed literary texts and films. You'll see that OCR provide more detail in their list of topics.

AS topics, literary texts and films are within the A-level ones. All boards except AQA have a shorter list of texts and/or films for AS-Level.

There are also some differences in the assessment regime (e.g. exam timings, mark schemes and what goes in each paper) but I shall not deal with those issues in this post. The general weightings for each skill are dictated by DfE/Ofqual.

After the list of sub-themes/areas of study (the nomenclature varies from awarding body to awarding body) I shall add the prescribed list of literary texts and films. See what might be most stimulating to you and your students.

Pearson choose to list their themes in French.

By the way, Steve Glover of the excellent alevelfrench.com site has done a very useful mapping exercise showing how the topics compare across the exam boards (Word doc). He shared it with me and it is parked here.

Here we go:

AQA

Sub-themes
  • The changing nature of family.
  • The "cyber-society".
  • The place of voluntary work.
  • Positive features of a diverse society.
  • Life for the marginalised.
  • How criminals are treated.
  • A culture proud of its heritage.
  • Contemporary francophone music.
  • Cinema: the 7th art form.
  • Teenagers, the right to vote and political commitment.
  • Demonstrations, strikes - who holds the power?
  • Politics and immigration.
Texts
  • Molière Le Tartuffe.
  • Voltaire Candide.
  • Maupassant Boule de suif et autres contes de guerre.
  • Camus L'Etranger.
  • Sagan Bonjour Tristesse.
  • Etcherelli Elise ou la vtaie vie.
  • Joffo Un sac de billes.
  • Guène Kiffe kiffe demain.
  • de Vigan No et moi.
Films
  • Au revoir les enfants.
  • La Haine.
  • L'auberge espagnole.
  • Un long dimanche de fiançailles.
  • Entre les murs.
  • Les 400 coups.

Eduqas

Sub-themes
  • Advantages of travelling, working and studying abroad.
  • Impact of travel on society (economic, social, physical and environmental).
  • Local culture and festivals in France and French-speaking countries and communities.
  • Migration and integration.
  • Cultural identity and marginalisation.
  • Cultural enrichment and celebrating difference.
  • Discrimination and diversity.
  • Entertainment, music and the arts . 
  • Media and digital culture.  
  • Youth sub-cultures, trends and personal identity. 
  • From June 1940 – May 1945 (occupation, liberation and end of World War II) .
  • Life in Occupied France and the cultural dimension (théâtre, cinéma, littérature) .
  • 1945-1950: rebuilding and restructuring. 
  • Repercussions for modern day France .
Texts
  • Camus l'Etranger.
  • de Vigan No et moi.
  • Anouilh Antigone (play).
  • Laroui Une année chez les Français.
  • Vercors Le silence de la mer.
  • Ben Jelloun Le racisme expliqué à ma fille (novel).
Films
  • Intouchables.
  • Les Choristes.
  • Le Grand voyage.
  • La Haine.
  • Au revoir les enfants.
  • Monsieur Batignole.

OCR

Areas of study

  • Stereotypes, equality and gender -  the family (different structures and relationships); attitudes to marriage; gender identity; equality of opportunity; the roles of men and women; the effects of communication technology on human relationships.
  • Modern world issues - eating habits, genetically modified (GM) foods, vegetarianism, organic food and food production in target language countries and communities; obsessions and addictions; impacts of lifestyle on health, sport and fitness; technology. 
  • Law and order - types of crime, demographics of crime and punishment; cybercrime; crime prevention measures; punishments (prison, fines, alternatives to prison). 
  • Medical advances and related ethical issues - medical research; animal testing; genetic engineering; cosmetic surgery; the effect of extending life expectancy on demographics. 
  • Aspects of artistic culture - the popularity and significance of TV, film, theatre and music in the countries and communities where the language is spoken; music as an element of personal and national identity; the impact of digital technology in the world of the arts. 
  • Aspects of political culture - political systems; the impact of politics on the individual and society (education, housing, the environment, employment and migration); the role of the EU.
Texts
  • Césaire Une saison au congo.  
  • Camus L'étranger .
  • Nothomb Stupeur et tremblements.
  • Mauriac Thérèse Desqueyroux.
  • Labro Le petit garçon.
  • Grimbert Un secret .
  • Guène Kiffe kiffe demain .
  • Molière L’Avare.
Films
  • La Haine .
  • Les quatre cents coups.
  • Le Corbeau.
  • Jean de Florette.
  • Intouchables.
  • Sans toit ni Loi.

Pearson

Themes

Theme 1: Les changements dans la société française 
  • Les changements dans les structures familiales Les changements dans les attitudes envers le mariage, les couples et la famille. 
  • L’éducation Le système éducatif et les questions estudiantines. 
  • Le monde du travail La vie active en France et les attitudes envers le travail; le droit à la grève; l’égalité des sexes. 

Theme 2: La culture politique et artistique dans les pays francophones 
  • La musique Les changements et les développements; l’impact de la musique sur la culture populaire. 
  • Les médias La liberté d’expression; la presse écrite et en ligne; l’impact sur la société et la politique. 
  • Les festivals et les traditions Les festivals, fêtes, coutumes et traditions. 

Theme 3: L’immigration et la société multiculturelle française 

  • L’intégration et le multiculturalisme Les origines de l’immigration (à partir du 20ème siècle); l’évolution des stratégies politiques; les bienfaits at les défis de l’intégration et du multiculturalisme. 
  • La montée de l’extrême droite Les objectifs du Front national (FN); les leaders du FN; la montée du FN; l’opinion publique. 
Theme 4: L’Occupation et la Résistance 
  • L’Occupation La vie sous le régime de Vichy et l’autorité du Maréchal Pétain; La France occupée et la collaboration; l’antisémitisme. 
  • La Résistance La Résistance des Français, l’importance de Jean Moulin et Charles de Gaulle. 
Texts

Maupassant Boule de Suif (Un Duel, Deux Amis, La Mère Sauvage)
Ernaux La place 
Colette Le blé en herbe
Pagnol Le Château de ma mère
Begag Le gone du Chaâba 
Sartre Les mains sales
Rochefort Les petits enfants du siècle
Molière Le Tartuffe
Camus L’Étranger
Delphine de Vigan No et moi
Mauriac Thérèse Desqueyroux 
Joffo Un sac de billes

Films

Au revoir les enfants
Deux jours, une nuit
Entre les murs
Intouchables
La Haine
La Vie en Rose
Le dernier métro
Les Choristes
Les 400 coups
Un long dimanche de fiançailles




Tuesday, 7 July 2015

A look at The Language Gym




The Language Gym is a free interactive website for French, Spanish and some Italian written by Gianfranco Conti, who also authors the outstanding Language Gym blog which I have mentioned before here.

From the homepage you have three options.

The Verb Trainer focuses on conjugations. There is a menu on the left from which you can choose a language, verb or tense to work with. I initially found the menu confusing, but you quickly get used to it. You then play the game to a time limit, given a pronoun and tense and an infinitive. You type out the correct part of the verb. If you get an answer wrong you are given the correct one. This is reminiscent of similar conjugation programmes online and is fine given its obvious limitations. It may appeal to some students who enjoy playing with verbs to a time limit.

The second section is called Workouts and is considerably meatier. For this section you can choose French or Spanish. So far there are grammar, oral and vocabulary modules, with reading to come in the future. To take an example, in the Grammar module I looked at the Intermediate level set of games which feature various tenses. You can choose a tense which leads you to a menu of games. Activities include: matching, broken words, gapped conjugations, gapped sentences and translation.

A vocabulary module features tasks such as multiple choice, matching, categories, drag and drop multi-choice and translation.

There is a mass of material here at various levels. You should go and have a play.

I found navigating the site a little tricky at first. When you use the back button it takes you back to the home page rather than the previous point in a menu. But once you are into a sequence of activities there are clear arrow buttons to move you back and forward at the bottom of the page. Presentation is clear, uncluttered and not all gimmicky - simple white text on a blue screen. Some may prefer at least a little visual excitement, but it doesn't worry me.

The third section is called Game Room. There are four games to choose from: Boxing, Kung-Fu Grammar, Bench Press and Rock Climbing. The Kung-Fu Grammar is a multi-choice task. If you get an answer right a fist appears to break down the background wall. Students will like it and probably start demonstrating their own moves.

The Rock Climbing game is ingenious. You have a wall of brings, four on each level. You choose one from the bottom then have to move up the wall choosing the right grammatical item in each case. The level is highish intermediate. I like this game.

I could imagine using the Game Room as a reward at the end of a computer room session.

To cut to the chase, I recommend this site if you enjoy presenting classes with controlled practice of language form and meaning. From what I have seen so far the focus is primarily on form and it supports Gianfranco's methodology which leans towards cognition, analysis and practice (I hope I am being fair to him on that). The content is challenging with an element of fun. There are lots of practice examples. It may be too hard for some groups. You could use it in class or have students use it for practice at home. It would be excellent for revision before exams. As the site builds further it could rival Languagesonline as a "go to" site for teachers of French and Spanish in particular.

Well played, Mr Conti!

Selection and grading

A fundamental principle of choosing a resource for a class should normally be skilled selection and grading.

This involves choosing material which approximates to the current level of a class and then takes them a step further. With a text, for example, you do not want to overload the students with too much new vocabulary or unfamiliar grammar. Some theorists would favour a "finely tuned" selection and grading whereby you very carefully design or choose a resource to include previously practised material plus just a little more. Others would favour "rough-tuning", arguing that you do not need to worry too much about focusing on the form and that interesting content of roughly the right level should be sufficient.

Teachers who favour more naturalistic approaches (e.g. TPRS or CLIL) place less emphasis on fine-tuning, whilst making sure, in general, that they limit the range of vocabulary and grammar they present and practise.

Most teachers in a high school context stick with a more finely-tuned approach, at least in the early stages, basing their selection and grading on a grammatical progression with topics bolted on.

My own preference in early stages is for a fine-tuning approach. This the one adopted by traditional textbooks going back many years and features a grammatical syllabus with just a small amount of new material being introduced at each level, with plenty of revision built in. The Tricolore course does this pretty well for more able learners. A good principle to keep in mind is that you do not want to present learners with lots of new vocabulary whilst you are also teaching a new point of grammar. Gianfranco Conti, in his excellent blog, refers to this in Point 2 here. In essence you shouldn't overload students with too much new material at once.

One clear disadvantage of fine-tuning, with its focus on form, is that it restricts the topics you can cover so you end up avoiding potentially interesting subject matter. The familiar challenge is to try and marry smart selection and grading with interesting content. It's not easy.

At a more advanced level, once the basics of syntax, vocabulary and morphology have been grasped and partly internalised, I would be less fussy about fine-tuning. By this stage my own inclination is to assume that lots of comprehensible input will generally do the job along with however much controlled practice seems necessary with the group in front of you.

There is, alas, despite what some claim, little convincing research which lends support to either of these approaches and in practice I would think most teachers in the school setting use a mixture of fine and rough-tuning.

What I consider poor practice is choosing a resource which is clearly much too easy or much too hard for a group. This is a potential danger of wanting to use, at all cost, authentic resources. The latter have not been written with learners in mind so are very unlikely to be finely tuned and may not even be roughly tuned. The current requirement to include literary texts in GCSE teaching causes a real issue with selection and grading. Hardly any material from a novel or play will be suitable so teachers will be wise to avoid these and make use of well-chosen songs or poems. Feature films are also an issue and can only really be justified at lower levels for their cultural value with most classes.

I have written a little more on this here.




Monday, 6 July 2015

Opinions

Since GCSE began mark schemes have always rewarded pupils' ability to express opinions. I never really got this.

It is easy to teach pupils a set of phrases to include in their speech and writing - "je pense que, je crois que, à mon avis, à mon sens" etc - but why would we want to particularly reward the learning of a narrow range of set phrases?

When students wrote GCSE coursework essays in the pre controlled assessment era, they could ensure they gained a significantly higher mark by including opinion phrases. If they wrote "je pense que" this was even better because it meant they were creating a subordinate clause and complex sentences were needed to gain the highest marks. The current regime of written controlled assessment awards highest marks for "explaining ideas and points of view" (AQA). The Speaking CA mark scheme descriptors for Communication refer to "points of view" and "opinions" (AQA).

The draft AQA GCSE Speaking mark schemes for first teaching from September 2016 continue to award the highest marks to candidates who offer and explain opinions. A proficient speaker who does not express opinions cannot get a high mark. This seems silly to me.

Now, opinion giving is one function of language among many. Others include expressing agreement, apology, intention, sympathy, blame, desire, persuasion, obligation. Why do we place opinion giving on a pedestal? Why do GCSE mark schemes not reward students who express other functions of language (asking questions springs to mind - a more important function than offering opinion).

My hypothesis on this is that when the communicative approach to language teaching became fashionable, along with some acceptance that language functions were as important as grammar in communicating messages, then syllabuses tried to acknowledge this. Mark schemes, for some reason, found a special place for opinion giving ahead of other functions. Since then tradition has taken over and we continue to see opinions given pride of place because they are there already.

If we really value the functional nature of language we should include reference in mark schemes to a wider range of functions. However, this would become unwieldy, so I would rather we adopted a "cleaner" approach and valued range of grammar and vocabulary and not tie pupils down to churning out pre-learned opinion phrases.

When we assess a linguist we need to know how much of the spoken and written word they understand. In assessing their speaking and writing we should value, above all, their ability to manipulate creatively grammar and vocabulary. We can also reward memorised language, but we should not be placing a high value on the rote learning of a particular set of phrases, taken from one function of language among many.






- Posted using BlogPress from my iPad


Saturday, 4 July 2015

An approach to translation which keeps emphasis on target language.

I'm going to be writing some beginner and near beginner resources with translation in mind. You know I'm not a huge fan, but many schools will want to include more translation with the new curriculum in mind, so I have to keep the customers happy!

So here is a sample of what I'll be doing where translation features but with the focus still on comprehensible input. This one is an adaptation of an existing parallel reading task called Mon chien.

The original is in landscape format with French on the left and English gapped translation on the right. I have added true/false and sentence completion to keep the emphasis on target language input. This one is pretty easy.

French

Mon chien s’appelle Bouba. Il a cinq ans. C’est un labrador noir.  On l’a trouvé dans un refuge pour chiens.

Il est énorme et très mignon. Quand je rentre de l’école, il saute et veut jouer dans le jardin. Il adore courir, jouer à la balle et se baigner dans la rivière ou dans la mer.

Il mange beaucoup et en particulier il adore le chocolat et les gâteaux. Il adore monter en voiture avec la famille et faire des promenades à la campagne. Mon père le promène tous les jours.


Quand on a des invités à la maison il s’excite et aboie beaucoup. La nuit il couche dans la cuisine. Quand il va se coucher, il prend toujours un de mes chaussons pour dormir, il s'en sert comme d'un doudou.

C’est un chien vraiment adorable et très affectueux. Je l’adore.

English gapped version

My dog _______ Bouba. He is ____ years old. He’s a _____ Labrador. We found him in a dog ____________.

He is ____ and very _______. When I get ____ from school he jumps up and wants to _____ in the garden. He _____ running about, playing ____ and swimming in the _____ or the ___.

He ____a lot and in particular he loves ________ and _____. He loves going out in the ___ with the ______ and going for _____ in the __________. My father _____ him every ___.

When we ____  ______ in the house he gets _______ and barks _____. At _____ he sleeps in the ______. When he goes to ___ he takes one of my _______ and ____ it like a cuddly ___.

He’s a really _______  and very ___________ dog. I ____ him.

True/false

1.       Bouba a cinq ans.
2.       C’est un chien rose.
3.       Bouba est très agressif.
4.       Il est très petit pour un Labrador.
5.       Il n’aime pas jouer dans le jardin.
6.       Il aime jouer avec une balle.
7.       Il aime aller dans une rivière ou dans la mer.
8.       C’est un chien végétarien et il ne mange pas beaucoup.
9.       Il aime le chocolat mais pas les gâteaux.
10.     Il fait des promenades à bicyclette.
11.      Il monte dans la voiture avec la famille.
12.     Maman promène Bouba.
13.     Quand il y a des invités Bouba s’excite.
14.     Il reste toujours calme.
15.     Il dort dans la chambre des parents.
16.     Il aime dormir avec un chausson de papa.
17.     Bouba est sympa et donne beaucoup d’affection.

Gaps
1.       Bouba est un _____.
2.       Bouba n’est pas blanc, il est ____.
3.       Il n’est pas _____, il est énorme.
4.       Bouba n’est pas méchant, il est ______.
5.       Il _____ jouer dans le jardin avec une _____.
6.       Il aime les ________ et la mer.
7.       Bouba mange _______.
8.       Il préfère le _______ et les ________.
9.       Il aime les ___________ en voiture.
10.     Papa _______ le chien.
11.      Quand des invités arrivent Bouba _______.
12.     Il ______ dans la cuisine.
13.     Il dort avec un ________.
14.     Bouba est un chien __________

Friday, 3 July 2015

So what's the point of translation?

Translation is in GCSE for the first time. The last time pupils had to translate both ways was back in the days of O-level i.e. pre 1987. Its position is also reaffirmed at A-level from which it has never disappeared.

I would hypothesis that it is in at GCSE because someone at the DfE, or advising the DfE, estimated it was the only way to get teachers to apply a rigorous approach to grammar and vocabulary teaching. To many of us it seems like an old-fashioned and misguided way to achieve that end and one which will inevitably lead to poor classroom practice and an even greater neglect of target language use.

With that preamble out of the way, what is the value of translation?  It clearly has merits as a language learning activity. Let's take each form of translation in turn - L1 to L2 and L2 to L1. Please note that I am limiting myself to written translation of written passages or sentences.

L1 to L2 (translation into the target language)

We used to call this "prose translation".

Pros

1.  It probably helps fix grammatical accuracy and revise vocabulary.

2.  Some pupils enjoy it. It satisfies the puzzle-solver and accuracy fan.

3.  As a testing tool it can be made to be quite unpredictable and therefore hard to learn up for.

4.  As a testing tool it can be marked quite objectively.

5.  It reflects a reality that language learners often work from L1 to L2. Why not develop this skill?

6. It is challenging for students when set at the right level.

7. There may be an element of real life activity involved. Adults do sometimes need to translate, even if technology makes this less likely nowadays.

Cons

1.  It limits the amount of target language use in the classroom.

2.  It is an uncommunicative sort of activity - it's talking about the language rather than using it for communication.

3.  When used as a testing tool, because of the backwash effect, teachers may do too much of it in the classroom. Teachers love to teach to the test.

4.  It offers almost no new comprehensible input to further language acquisition.

5.  It may encourage interference from the first language, based as it is on a cognitive rather than natural approach to second language acquisition.

6. It may suit able learners, who are good at cognitive problem solving and pattern spotting, more than students of lower aptitude. Some may see this an unfair and argue that naturalistic methods do not have this bias.

7. Many students find it boring and would be more motivated by other tasks.


L2 to L1 (translating into English)


This was known as "unseen translation".

Pros

1.  Sentences and passages in the TL are a source of comprehensible input.

2.  Translation requires a fine attention to detail. Everything must be understood and rendered accurately.

3. Some pupils enjoy the challenge of doing it. It can be satisfying to find the solution.

4. There may be some real life use for it, despite changes in technology.

5. We often translate in our heads so why not help develop this skill?

Cons

1. Beyond a certain level it becomes a test of English usage as much as a test of comprehension.

2. Students are writing English when they could be writing in the traget language. This limits acquisition.

3. Detailed comprehension can be assessed in other ways which provide more language input e.g. TL multiple choice.

4. Teaching this skill in the classroom involves using English, not communicating in the TL.

5. It is a task which involves talking about the language not using it.

Perhaps you can come up with some other arguments.

My bottom line is this: translation can be a useful classroom activity and means of testing certain types of knowledge, but if you use it frequently you inevitably end up reducing the amount of comprehensible input students receive and the amount of communication they engage in. In addition (excuse the capitals, I'm not shouting) YOU CAN DEVELOP INTERNALISED GRAMMATICAL SKILL WITHOUT TRANSLATING.

So, if you can get the rigour you may want, you can do it by skilled questioning, meaningful controlled practice and some explicit explanation. If these means simultaneously play to the unconscious learning end of the learning-acquisition spectrum, why not use them rather than translation?

I repeat: the return to translation at GCSE is a retrograde step, will not raise any standards and will end up boring too many students if teachers end up teach to the test. It was abandoned in the 1980s because it was seen to switch off so many pupils. If I were still a Head of Department I would be urging my colleagues to severely limit its use in KS3 and to use it judiciously at KS4, mainly near the end of the course in Y11. Be rigorous and stress accuracy if you want, but remember that language learning is much more about proficiency, understanding and fluency.

For more on ways of using translation creatively see two of my other blogs;

20 ways of doing translation into the target language

20 ways of doing translation into English

Wednesday, 1 July 2015

Latest from frenchteacher

Here are the subscriber resources I have added in the last month:

Text and exercises on overcrowding in French prisons. Article, vocabulary list to complete, questions about the text, general questions on prison and law and order.
Y13 (advanced)
Video listening for near beginners: Trotro fait un bonhomme de neige. Linked video with sentences to recognise, gapped translation and a mini story in French to complete. By the way, if you didn't know, Trotro is a cute little donkey much loved by toddlers in France. Fortunately, unlike most donkeys, he speaks French slowly and clearly.
(Y8 - near beginner)
Parallel reading passage and exercise on the organisation Islamic State. Some useful background knowledge for students.
(Y10-11 - intermediate)
Parallel reading. The story of three Mexican fishermen rescued after drifting 8000km across the Pacific. True/false/not mentioned exercise and an idea for written exploitation.
(Y10/11 - intermediate
A French to English translation on the subject of the cartoon book market in France. Model answer provided as for all the translations on the site.
Y12-13 (Advanced)
Two parallel readings for intermediate level. Weird hotel complaints and phobias. Parallel French-English text, true/false/not mentioned and other exercises.
Y10-11 (Intermediate)
Two parallel readings for intermediate level. The first is about young people's changing online behaviour in France, the second about superheroes. Parallel texts (French and English) with true sentences to identify and some gap fill. Could work with excellent Y9 pupils.
Y10-11 (Intermediate)
Video listening. The Ariane rocket launcher. Link to short video from 1jour1question. Correct sentences to identify and vocab to complete. Teacher's answers provided. You could do this with fast Y10s, Y11 or Y12 (high intermediate/low advanced). The1jour1question videos are really good for this level.
Y10-11 (Intermediate)
Three new parallel reading for beginners. The Eiffel Tower, the Channel Tunnel and the EU - short parallel texts (on in French, one in English) with true or false sentences to identify and a vocabulary list to complete. I've also posted a front cover page if you want to make the parallel texts into a booklet.
Y7 (Beginner)